Photo by

It makes that short-term memory last for a long time.

LSTM Gate模型

1. Three Types of Gate

  • Input Gate: Controls how much of the current input \(x_t\) and the previous output \(h_{t-1}\) will enter into the new cell.
\[i_t=\sigma(W^i x_t+U^i h_{t-1}+b^i)\]
  • Forget Gate: Decide whether to erase (set to zero) or keep individual components of the memory.
\[f_t=\sigma(W^f x_t+U^f h_{t-1}+b^f)\]
  • Cell Update: Transforms the input and previous state to be taken into account into the current state.
\[g_t=\phi(W^g x_t+U^g h_{t-1}+b^g)\]
  • Output Gate: Scales the output from the cell.
\[o_t=\sigma(W^o x_t+U^o h^{t-1}+b^o)\]
  • Internal State update: Computes the current timestep’s state using the gated previous state and the gated input.
\[s_t=g_t\cdot i_t+s_{t-1}\cdot f_t\]
  • Hidden Layer: Output of the LSTM scaled by a \(\tanh\) (squashed) transformations of the current state.
\[h_t=\phi(s_t)\cdot o_t\]

where “\(\cdot\)” denotes element-wise matrix multiplication, \(\phi(x)=\tanh(x),\sigma(x)=sigmoid(x)\)


2. Paralleled Computing

input gate, forget gate, cell update, output gate can be computed in parallel.

\[\begin{bmatrix} i^t\\ f^t\\g^t\\o^t \end{bmatrix} =\begin{bmatrix}\sigma\\ \sigma\\\phi\\\sigma\end{bmatrix}\times W\times[x^t,h^{t-1}]\]

3. LSTM network for Semantic Analysis

LSTM network for semantic analysis

  • Model Architecture: LSTM layer –> Averaging Pooling –> Logistic Regession

  • Input sequence: \(x_0,x_1,x_2,\cdots,x_n\)

  • representation sequence: \(h_0,h_1,h_2,\cdots,h_n\)

This representation sequence is then averaged over all timesteps resulting in representation h: